Few and far art – Few And Far http://fewandfar.net/ Fri, 06 May 2022 08:58:14 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://fewandfar.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/cropped-icon-32x32.png Few and far art – Few And Far http://fewandfar.net/ 32 32 Repatriating a Polish art collection with a rich history https://fewandfar.net/repatriating-a-polish-art-collection-with-a-rich-history/ Fri, 06 May 2022 07:06:38 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/repatriating-a-polish-art-collection-with-a-rich-history/

The treasure of art history is hidden away at Le Moyne College, a small Jesuit school in Syracuse, New York. Hanging in the college’s Noreen Reale Falcone library, amid bronze busts of clergymen and statues of Jesus, is a collection of tapestries and paintings that were displayed for the first time in the Polish Pavilion at the exhibition. 1939 New York Universal.

They have been at Moyne since 1958, when a former assistant professor and Polish émigré named Stefan de Ropp donated them to the college. But now they have to return to Poland, to be exhibited in a new museum of Polish history in Warsaw.

Peter Obst, director of the Poles in America Foundation, said efforts to bring the collection back to Poland have been going on for decades.

“I have known the collection for a long time, because it is a legend of Polonia,” he said, using the term for the Polish diaspora in America. The local Obst Community Polish Cultural Center even has prints of the paintings hanging on the walls. “The copies don’t come close to the originals, though,” Obst said. “Not even 10 miles up close.”

Poles have been trying to persuade Le Moyne to repatriate the art since the early 1990s, when a group including Boguslaw Winid, former Polish representative to the United Nations and current adviser to Polish President Andrzej Duda, traveled to Syracuse to plead their cause. The mission proved unsuccessful, as were many subsequent attempts over the following decades.

Inga Barnello, director of Le Moyne’s library, said the college treasured the collection – known as the De Ropp collection, after its donor – and did not want to part with it for many years.

“We’re not here to donate our art collections,” she said. “It was a gift.”

Obst said that although the college was never antagonistic, it remained stubbornly committed to the works.

“Le Moyne, for a long time, blew people away,” he said. “There were just different points of view and misunderstandings that needed to be reconciled.”

“There are no bad guys in this story, except maybe Hitler and Stalin,” he added.

It was only a few years ago that the prospect of repatriation began to become a reality. In 2019, Obst and Deborah Majka, the Polish Honorary Consul for Southeastern Pennsylvania, secured a meeting with then-Provost Provost Rev. Joseph Marina, SJ. (Father Marina then served as interim president of Le Moyne from 2020 to 2021 and is currently president of the University of Scranton, another Jesuit institution).

Obst described this meeting with Father Marina as the “decisive moment” in the years-long quest to repatriate the collection. After the meeting, the college expressed its willingness for the first time to part ways with the artwork, provided it had a safe place and was on public display.

“I guess I managed to appeal to his Jesuit sense of social justice and fairness,” Obst said. “The Polish people will reclaim their heritage. That’s what motivated me. So even though it took a bit of time, I think the effort was worth it.“

The Polish Ministry of Culture, which had long wanted to repatriate the collection, asked if Le Moyne would consider sending it to Warsaw, to be exhibited in a still-to-be-built Polish history museum. After a few years of back and forth, Le Moyne agreed.

“Once we heard that they were seriously building a new national history museum in Warsaw, and that’s where they were going, we felt a bit better,” Barnello said.

On Wednesday, a Polish delegation arrived in Syracuse to sign an official agreement with Le Moyne and celebrate their mutual appreciation for art. The delegation included Piotr Glinski, Polish Minister of Culture, and Robert Kostro, Director of the Polish History Museum.

Le Moyne communications director Joseph Della Posta said the two parties had agreed not to release any details of a financial agreement associated with the repatriation of the art.

The artwork will travel in temporary exhibitions across Poland starting in autumn 2023 and will be placed on permanent display in 2024, when the Warsaw Museum is scheduled to open. The paintings depict important scenes from Polish history, highlighting the country’s contributions to democracy in Europe.

“The central point of the [Polish National History] museum will be the history of democracy and freedom in Poland,” said Kostro. “Le Moyne’s paintings are of great importance in this respect.”

A historic—and historic—collection

The De Ropp collection is made up of seven murals, all over two meters long, and four large tapestries. The paintings were all executed collaboratively by a group of 11 Polish artists known as the Confrérie de Saint-Luc; the tapestries were made by Mieczysław Szymański, a pupil of the founder of the Brotherhood, Tadeusz Pruszkowski. All were intended to educate an international audience at the World’s Fair about Poland’s place in the progress of Western civilization. Some of the scenes they depict include the establishment of the first writ of habeas corpus in Krakow in 1430; the Warsaw Confederation of 1573, which granted religious freedom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; and the Polish army repelling the Ottomans from Vienna in 1683.

The work adorned the central hall of honor of the Polish pavilion – an integral part of an exhibition which, for an interwar Poland newly independent of the Prussian Empire and not yet under German control, was crucial to establish a revitalized national identity.

“When Poland was reborn after 1918, people didn’t know they had their own country for over 100 years,” Obst said. “Performing in this pavilion was so important to them because it was about projecting their identity and national consciousness.”

“The paintings speak of Polish history, but they are also part of Polish history,” Kostro said.

The art never returned to its country of origin. In September 1939, just months after the pavilion opened, Nazi Germany invaded and occupied Poland. In the following years, the work was either sold to repay debts or acquired by cultural institutions. Many pieces from the pavilion ended up in the Polish Museum of America in Chicago; others have gone to diplomatic posts, such as the Polish Embassy in Washington, D.C. A statue of King Wladyslaw Jagiellon, who led the World’s Fair exhibit, has been erected in New York’s Central Park, where it remains to this day.

So how did these Brotherhood of Saint Luke paintings end up in a tiny Jesuit college in upstate New York?

Trip to Le Moyne

Stefan de Ropp, the curator of the Polish pavilion, found himself in two difficult situations after the 1939 World’s Fair.

The German invasion, coming just months after the exhibition opened, left De Ropp and his family, in addition to art, stranded in America. Cut off from Poland’s expense accounts for the exhibition, De Ropp paid off his debts by selling many of the exhibits after the fair ended.

After the war ended, Poland became part of the Soviet Union and De Ropp did not return. Obst said De Ropp tried to return the paintings, but the new Soviet government was not interested in art with such blatant nationalist and religious overtones.

“The paintings shared the fate of many Poles who had to emigrate because of the war and could not return because of the communist dictatorship,” Kostro said. “Finally today, when Poland is a free, democratic and independent country, they can come back to Poland, just like the history of the paintings.”

In the 1950s, De Ropp, adrift and broke, found a job at Le Moyne College as a part-time Russian lecturer. By then he had sold or given away almost all of the exhibits at the World’s Fair, but he clung to the work of the Confrérie de Saint-Luc, the centerpiece of the exhibition. In 1958, he donated them to his employer, to display them in the university library.

“He said, ‘Let’s put them here in this Catholic college – there’s a lot of Catholic history in [the paintings]“said Barnello. “And they were huge! It would have been difficult to store them.

“[De Ropp] wanted to keep the paintings, but he couldn’t afford to store them…the guy was against the wall,” Obst said. “Some people accused him of taking them without permission, but I think he did his best.”

During their first two decades at Le Moyne, the collection hung in a small old library, uncased and on display. Barnello says they were in poor condition until 1983, when then-university president Frank Haig had them restored and moved to a newly built library.

“They were dusty, dry. The children drew mustaches on the people in the paintings,” she said. “There was no glass on them. They were just reachable, in the old library.

After the collection was restored, Barnello became interested in the art of local Polish American heritage clubs. But for the most part, the pieces simply existed in the college library — grand and beautiful, she says, but far from the public eye.

“In recent years we have tried to promote programs and screenings,” Barnello said. “But there just wasn’t a big audience for them.”

A bittersweet parting

For Barnello, who has worked at the Le Moyne College Library since 1982, parting with the De Ropp collection is bittersweet. She plans to retire in June and says she hopes to be gone before the paintings are removed.

“I understand it’s the right thing to do, but I’m going to miss my friends,” she said. “I am happy to have been able to help promote them in a modest way over the past 30 years. It was really a pleasure.

Barnello’s post-retirement plans finally include a visit to Poland, the country she gained a deep appreciation for during the decades she spent caring for and studying the De Ropp collection. And she does not consider one day the possibility of visiting her old friends in their new home across the Atlantic.

She probably won’t find herself immersing herself in art alone. For the first time since the 1939 World’s Fair, the paintings and tapestries will be displayed to mass audiences – and in the country in which they were created, whose history they celebrate.

“It’s going to be a big problem in Poland,” Obst said. “My personal feeling is that in the first few weeks [of their exhibition]more people will see them than in the nearly 30 years they hung in the library.

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Copper mining, like politics, is now the art of the possible https://fewandfar.net/copper-mining-like-politics-is-now-the-art-of-the-possible/ Wed, 04 May 2022 19:15:11 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/copper-mining-like-politics-is-now-the-art-of-the-possible/

In a recent note, Goldman Sachs summed up the changing nature of the industry in the context of copper thus:

“…fundamentals were once so tied to global growth that copper was considered to have a ‘PhD’ in macroeconomics.

“Yet today, ‘Dr. Copper no longer exists – with ESG, geopolitics and chronic underinvestment all driving copper fundamentals far more than overall global growth.

“In our view, Copper’s doctorate is about public policy, not economics, rallying around concerns about Chilean mining royalties, accelerating European demand for renewables and supply risks from sanctions. rather than falling global growth expectations.”

Possible is the new probable

Resources can be measured or indicated, reserves can still be labeled proven and probable, but deposits under development have become more uncertain.

In a presentation at the copper mining industry’s largest annual gathering in Santiago, CRU’s head of base metals supply, Erik Heimlich, stressed that while the scale of the supply shortfall long term of just over 6 million tonnes is in line with historical trends, closing that gap is a much more daunting prospect today.

Source: CRU

Most important is the fact that now, remarkably, half of the project pipeline for the supply needed in 2032 consists of entirely new projects in the possible category; Another 19% are speculative brownfield projects.

Comparing the 2022 project pipeline to that of 2012 is sobering. Of the 8 million tonnes per year capacity identified as potential new projects, 7 million tonnes remain untapped.

Heimlich says the preponderance of projects only classified as possible in the pipeline indicates the extent to which “factors beyond project economics play an increasingly important role” in determining whether projects become mines.

How brown was your valley?

Only about a third of 2012’s uncommitted brownfield projects, which are expected to be faster, easier and cheaper to build, are currently in production or under construction.

Notable projects from 2012 that stayed that way include Anglo American and Glencore’s $6.5 billion expansion at Collahuasi, which was supposed to boost production at the Chilean mine above 1 million tons and BHP’s Olympic dam project which began as “the mother of all digs” and ended as an exercise in debottlenecking.

If new projects are more missed than hit, it is up to life of mine extensions, operational efficiency projects and mine restart to make up the difference, but Heimlich warns that if “the intensity in capital from the debottlenecking project can be attractive, the additional tonnage is usually small”. and lack of scale can render such projects useless.

The success of mine restarts is also uneven, with few mines resuming production and those generally doing so on a small scale.

stop stop

Given the difficulty of bringing more projects online, life of mine extensions “in this cycle seem more necessary than ever,” says Heimlich, but even those projects can fall foul of environmental, regulatory and , community and political.

Anglo American had to cut its Los Bronces project by $3 billion for environmental reasons and will use the sub-level blasting method so as to have no surface impact in an area with many glaciers, but that means extraction of ore significantly lower than with block caving or open pit operations.

And that may not be enough for a green light just yet – just this week Chile’s environmental regulator denied the project an extension permit.

Technical Tonic

Can technology fill the void? Heimlich says the new leaching processes “are attracting significant interest and investment” and that the total addressable market for low-grade sulphide leaching is equivalent to about 10 years of current production.

“New technologies offer the most significant benefits for long-term production, but could exceed the time required.”

A bit like all those green, brown, possible, probable, committed and uncommitted projects that go beyond the required deadlines.

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CAA, CDS, OBC – Modi’s government has perfected the art of creating headlines and dithering https://fewandfar.net/caa-cds-obc-modis-government-has-perfected-the-art-of-creating-headlines-and-dithering/ Tue, 03 May 2022 04:17:42 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/caa-cds-obc-modis-government-has-perfected-the-art-of-creating-headlines-and-dithering/

AArmy Chief General MM Naravane retired on Saturday, ending speculation over his likely elevation to Chief of Defense Staff (CDS). It has been almost five months since General Bipin Rawat died in a helicopter crash. The government has not yet been able to name his successor. The last time the government made reference to the CDS was when Prime Minister Narendra Modi, at a campaign rally in Uttarakhand, offensive Congress for “using” the late Rawat’s cutouts for votes. It was in February. The creation of the post of CDS was Prime Minister Modi’s first major decision in his second term. He chose to declare it from the ramparts of the Red Fort on Independence Day in 2019. Just three years since, the CDS nomination has become a matter of speculation.

It was not a Manmohan Singh-Sonia Gandhi government that was hit by political paralysis during its second term. Decision making is Modi’s forte, isn’t it? Maybe he has something in mind about CDS, which the government cannot share at this point. Let’s leave that aside. But it serves as a trigger to see how the Modi government, in its second term, seems to waver on a host of issues after making a big song and dance about them.

Early in his first term, he became gaga over his proposed amendments to the UPA-era Land Acquisition Act and sought to implement it by way of an order. He enacted the ordinance three times before Modi declared in Mann ki Baat that it would not be reissued. It was two months before the Bihar assembly election in 2015. It was still the start of the Modi government. What is surprising is his inability to carry out his ambitious initiatives even in his second term. There is not even talk of the three controversial farm bills he scrapped ahead of assembly elections, particularly in Uttar Pradesh. Taste a few more.


Read also : India’s new CDS will have to decide: Where does the army’s loyalty go?


Citizenship (Amendment) Act: The legislation was approved by Parliament in December 2019. Modi and Union Home Minister Amit Shah hail this law from time to time. Yet the law is not operational as the Home Office failed to set out the rules, which should have been in place by June 2020. In the meantime, the ministry secured five extensions from parliamentary committees on subordinate legislation. If the PM and HM are so convinced of the merits of the CAA, what is stopping the Home Office from notifying the rules?

Sub-categorysation of CBOs: In October 2017, the Modi government constituted the Commission headed by Justice Rohini for the sub-categorization of Other Backward Classes (OBC). He was due to submit his report on January 2, 2018. He has obtained 12 extensions to date. In the meantime, its terms of reference have been modified, which would seem to justify the delay. We are in May 2022 and the Commission has not finalized its report. If a few dominant communities among the OBCs were capturing the benefits of the reservation and this needed to be addressed, why is the government giving tareekh pe tareekh, instead of giving the committee a final deadline to submit the report? Or is it because these dominant communities have become more relevant in the electoral scheme of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)?

Labor codes: Four labor codes on wages, industrial relations, social security and safety at work, health and working conditions were approved by Parliament in 2019 and 2020. The government called them “historic”. However, these codes have not been implemented because the Center has not notified the rules. In an interview with ThePrint in June 2021, then Labor and Employment Minister Santosh Gangwar said the government wanted to notify the rules from July 1, but may have to postpone it. on October 1 of this year. As the work is part of the concurrent list, the Center and the States must notify the rules under their jurisdiction. But many states had yet to finalize the rules, Gangwar said.

About seven months after the then minister set a new deadline, labor codes are still not operational, with Center officials giving the same explanation. Wasn’t the Center aware of the States’ commitment to these reforms? And if all the States do not commit, will the Center definitively suspend these historic reforms?

River connection project: In her budget speech last year, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said draft Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for five river link projects had been finalized and consensus among beneficiary states was reached. expected. Jal Shakti’s minister, Gajendra Singh Shekhawat, added in a tweet that the projects would “go a long way” to alleviating the problem of water scarcity in remote and arid parts of India. A year later, in March 2022, the Center decided to suspend one of these five Par-Tapi-Narmada river link projects. Gujarat Minister Hrishikesh Patel informed the state assembly that his government had asked the Center not to go ahead with the project. The Center had obtained States’ consent before finalizing the DPRs. So, if the states back out because of protests from part of the population, what will be the fate of the ambitious river connection projects?


Read also : The Indian government cannot introduce quality reforms because it ignores these three problems


Big Bang reforms on the back burner

So what’s wrong? This is not a remote government where someone sitting at 10 Janpath thwarts the initiatives of 7 Race Course Road (now Lok Kalyan Marg). And this is not a government led by Narasimha Rao in which not making a decision is also a decision. Nor is it an old-fashioned coalition government, whose hands are tied due to survival instincts. This is a government led by Narendra Modi, India’s most popular leader who can simply announce demonetization one night and national lockdown another, with people cheering regardless of how it impacts their daily lives. No one would therefore wonder why a government, led by a crusader against corruption, should make Lokpal toothless by keeping the positions of members of the judiciary and directors of investigation and persecution vacant. Nobody has an answer as to why India should suspend its census exercise because of Covid-19 when countries like China and the United States have completed it during the pandemic.

So what explains the procrastination in decision-making? Why should a government go to such lengths to ensure parliamentary approval of laws and then leave them inoperative in the absence of rules? Why should a government announce big plans only to put them on the back burner?

There are so many “whys” for which there are no definitive answers. When it comes to government, only Modi or Amit Shah know this. And when talking about them, it is prudent to introduce politics into them, with a few exceptions such as the appointment of the CDS. Big announcements, even when not acted upon, serve their purpose. Look at the titles they generate. And the longer the gestation period, the better their recall value in politics. Call it politics of governance or governance of politics. It’s working well for Modi and the BJP, so far. Period.

DK Singh is political editor, ThePrint. He tweets @dksingh73. Views are personal.

(Edited by Neera Majumdar)

]]> India Art Fair concludes its post-pandemic edition https://fewandfar.net/india-art-fair-concludes-its-post-pandemic-edition/ Sun, 01 May 2022 10:43:39 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/india-art-fair-concludes-its-post-pandemic-edition/

Launched in 2014, PhotoSparks is a weekly column of Your story, with photographs that celebrate the spirit of creativity and innovation. In the previous 600 posts, we featured a arts festival, cartoon gallery. world music festival, telecom fair, millet fair, exhibition on climate change, wildlife conference, boot festival, diwali rangoli, and jazz festival.

Founded in 2008, India Art Fair (IAF) is held annually in New Delhi, showcasing the best of galleries and artists, private foundations, museums, artist collectives and cultural events (see our five-part showcase on the 2020 edition here).

Jaya Asokan is the fair manager for this year’s IAF, which is being held at the NSIC Exhibition Grounds. The fair has not been held for the past two years due to the pandemic.

“The return of India Art Fair to its physical format has been cause for great excitement for the Indian and South Asian art scene. The energy we’ve seen so far has been amazing, not just from our returning galleries and patrons, but also from a whole new generation and base of artists, art lovers and young collectors,” says Jaya.

Ankon Mitra – Mastishk Vriksha – The brain is a tree

2022 edition

With BMW as an event partner, IAF 2022 spans 15,000 square meters. It presents 77 exhibitors (including four foreigners), 63 commercial galleries, 14 non-profit organizations and six outdoor art projects. The galleries represent 13 cities in India and foreign artists from the US, UK and Brazil.

In addition to exceptional art exhibits, there was a series of talks on topics like Why Culture Matters (Kiran Nadar), NFTease ((Aparajita Jain, Om Malviya, Raghava KK, Vasundhara Das), and The power of art (Indu Antony, Haroun Hayward). Hetain Patel and Arpita Akhanda Featured performance art.

Access for all achieved workshops on art inclusion and art and gender awareness. LAND held workshops on storytelling, puppet making and art appreciation. There have been launches of books also titled Beode’s art and Drawn from practice.

Jaya Asokan

Exploration and Growth

“India Fair will be hosting a fabulous series of talks and workshops over four days. There is also an exciting round-up of parallel programs across the city which includes gallery nights, exhibition openings and many more cultural activities to indulge in,” said Urvi Kothari, director of the Tao Art Gallery, in a conversation with Your story.

“This annual event is the perfect time to reunite with artists, gallery owners, collectors and appreciators after the virtual world of the pandemic,” she adds.

Artist Jaideep Mehrotra, whose works have been featured in the Tao Art Gallery, says he is eager to learn about interesting trends in art and new technologies. “I hope that the confinement has generated deep personal expressions and that these are visible in the broadcasts,” he says.

Bushra Waqas Khan Medallion

“I look forward to the increased visibility of Brazilian art in India and the exchange between Brazil and India in culture, especially visual arts,” said Karla Osorio Netto, director of the Galeria Karla Osorio (GaKO).

It will highlight the strength and quality of the original works of some of the artists represented by the gallery and will approach Indian collectors and institutions more closely.

“Given the art fair is being held after two years, I’m honestly excited and thrilled to watch some of the best entries from around the world in the real format and not on screens or virtually,” says Somak Mitra, Director/Owner, Art Exposure Gallery, Kolkata.

“I see the IAF as a wonderful platform for me as a gallerist to witness (almost first-hand) the nature and scale of the work, new formats and innovative presentations,” he adds. -he. Side or side events are also informative and educational, stemming from creative and business contexts.

Vida Heydari Contemporary installation

“I look forward to meeting collectors, curators, architects, interior designers and artists from cities across the country,” says Jaee Ajgaonkar, gallery assistant at Vida Heydari Contemporary (HCV) in Mumbai.

“I’m really looking forward to being back at the India Art Fair after this long pandemic break,” says Renu Modi, director, Galerie Espace. It highlights the performance art of Hetain Patel and a panel on Moving Focus, India: new perspectives on modern and contemporary art.

“We look forward to young collectors who have shown an increasing interest and inclination towards contemporary art over the past few years,” says Mandira Lamba, co-founder, Blueprint 12 Gallery.

She looks forward to the conversations at the Speakers Forum. “The IAF is happening after two years, we missed those wonderful dialogues,” she adds. She also cites the live performances of Arpita Akhanda and Gurjeet Singh.

“After the pandemic, I’m really looking forward to this physical interface with art lovers,” adds Tunty Chauhan, Director, Threshold Art Gallery.

“Art has faced insurmountable obstacles throughout history. We feel lucky to have created an opportunity for artists despite the very difficult times,” says Smriti Rajgarhia, Director, Serendipity Arts Foundation and Festival.

“We are happy to be back at the IAF and look forward to welcoming people to our booths and having a conversation about the arts,” she adds.

Isha Pimpalkhare – Wave 2021

Indian art trends

As trends in Indian art, Jaee Ajgaonkar sees Indian artists adopting more innovative mediums, and artists are using both physical and virtual platforms to showcase their work.

“A lot of young collectors are entering the art world, with more interest in contemporary art and diverse tastes. Indian collectors are also interested in international art, especially from countries like Iran with similar cultural influences,” she adds.

“Indian art is gaining momentum with many collectors showing renewed interest in India and across the world. Indian art has attracted particular interest from overseas Indian buyers who like to keep such art in their residences and workplaces,” observes Somak Mitra.

“Art spaces try to make art more accessible. In our contemporary times, I think arts institutions should strive not only to connect virtually with audiences through social media platforms, but also to initiate an effort to try to reach the visually impaired,” suggests Urvi Kothari.

Mandira Lamba

She points the Kolkata Creativity Center for example. “His braille decoding initiative introduces a new dimension that fine art has always lacked: touch and feel,” she says.

“A significant recent trend is the number of young professionals looking to acquire contemporary art. This is a very encouraging development and bodes well for the future of Indian art,” enthuses Renu Modi.

“We actually saw a refreshing trend in the post-pandemic era. Buyers respond to work rather than the name of the artist, it’s a huge change,” observes Tunty Chauhan.

“Indian art is intensifying at a very sustainable and good pace. Young collectors have mainly emerged over the past two years, in particular, alongside more international collectors. We see a great prospect for Indian art in the years to come,” predicts Mandira Lamba.

Installation of Threshold Art Gallery

Pandemic impact

“Art in different forms has helped make the pandemic and social isolation much more bearable. Online platforms in particular have made a major contribution to making art accessible to everyone,” recalls Jaee Ajgaonkar.

“The pandemic times have reinforced the importance of art in society. He saved many people from boredom. It opens our eyes and our sensitivity to better understand our own existence,” says Karla Osorio Netto.

“The pandemic has caused many resets, including loss of jobs and loss of life. Yet creativity was alive like never before through various forms and expressions,” observes Somak Mitra.

“This has given rise to many forms and formats involving faster and more encouraging global participation and collaboration,” he adds.

Renu Modi

“Now that the pandemic has receded, physical shows are back in fashion but art has become even more relevant than before, many choosing art as a passion and profession, moving away from conventional currents. The pandemic has taught the importance of the need for self-expression which has a universal connection,” says Somak.

“Art has regained its relevance in the post-pandemic era. It is a chronicle of our collective experience and a source of relief,” says Renu Modi.

“The pandemic has shown how important it is to see art in person, we missed the physical tangibility of art for two years,” laments Mandira Lamba.

Installation of Threshold Art Gallery

Digital platforms

Jaideep Mehrotra puts more emphasis on digital and performance arts. “Conventional standards are bent to fit the future. We spend an inordinate amount of time on our devices, and that is now reflected in our art,” he observes.

Interest in art has aroused further with virtual exhibitions. “First-time visitors and viewers of gallery and museum sites have found the virtual artr captivating and easy to attend. Art galleries were also quick to upload images and information online,” adds Somak Mitra.

Buyers can easily learn about each artist’s style, influences, and techniques while gaining insight into the particular aesthetic taste. “The Internet has demystified art and made the Indian art world accessible at your fingertips,” he says.

“The digital marketplace is here to stay and has been a game changer,” concludes Somak.

Now what have you done today to take a break from your busy schedule and find new avenues to apply your creativity?

Installation of GALLERYSKE

Baaraan Ijlal Mourners and Witnesses

Jaideep Mehrotra

Maya Jay Varadraj – Twin girls with curly hair and promises

Installing the Sakshi Gallery

Santosh Kumar Das – Untitled 1 from Tantra Series

Tunty Chauhan

Collapse Analysis – GaKO

Vida Heydari Contemporary installation

Installing Wonder Wall

(All images courtesy of India Art Fair and respective curators/owners.)

See also YourStory pocketbook “Proverbs and quotes for entrepreneurs: a world of inspiration for startups”, accessible as applications for Apple and android devices.

Edited by Saheli Sen Gupta
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Thyssen Museum brings ‘ignored’ Spanish art from the interwar period to life https://fewandfar.net/thyssen-museum-brings-ignored-spanish-art-from-the-interwar-period-to-life/ Fri, 29 Apr 2022 11:22:48 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/thyssen-museum-brings-ignored-spanish-art-from-the-interwar-period-to-life/

Dalí’s “Portrait of Anna Maria” is one of the masterpieces in the exhibition. / FRANCISCO HINOJOSA

‘Real(ismos)’ highlights the modernity of the new figuration through lesser-known works by Miró, Dalí, Maruja Mallo, Benjamín Palencia, Ponce de León and others

The paradox of early 20th century Spanish art is that while major artists like Picasso, Dalí and Miró were considered indisputable masters of the avant-garde, they were generally devalued, relegated to major exhibitions at the time and less studied than other contemporary European movements.

The new seasonal exhibition at the Carmen Thyssen Museum, entitled “Real(ismos)”, aims to show through the artists themselves and their works the coexistence of the avant-garde with the figuration that has once again prevailed in art. between the wars and which, in the case of Spain, ended prematurely and brutally with the civil war. It contains 86 works, some with a new realism that is far from traditional, by Maruja Mallo, Benjamín Palencia, Pablo Gargallo, Ponce de León, María Blanchard, Jorge Oramas and Julio González, among others.

“The new realists have been overshadowed and ignored in different exhibitions, so we want to highlight the relevance of Spanish art from the moment it was relegated to the background and the need to tell a story that until now has not was only partially told” declared Bárbara García y Alberto Gil, curators of the exhibition, during the opening. Thus, contrary to the prevailing thesis that Spanish art of the 1920s and 1930s was less interesting and of lower quality, the exhibition graphically shows that although many artists are not known today, their works have become part of integral part of European modernity after having been absent for so long. long.

This original art which, like the rest of the continent, returned to figuration and order after the catastrophes of the Great War but was contaminated by the avant-garde and far from being academic, is what can be seen in ‘Real(ismos)’. Back to landscapes, portraits and still lifes, the three main parts of this exhibition, showing “characters captured in an instant after the cataclysms of the avant-garde and the world war”, declared Bárbara García. The collection also includes prints and, above all, photos, which also had a great influence on this new realism.

“It was such a culturally rich period that we could have included cinema and literature,” explained Alberto Gil, pointing to the portrait of writer Rosa Chacel, pale skin and red shoes, by her husband Timoteo Pérez Rubio . In this second room, called ‘Sujetos’, attention is drawn to another woman with a deep gaze, a fixed gesture and large hands, ‘Portrait of Anna María’, painted when Salvador Dalí was still looking for his own style. Likewise, in the ‘Objetos’ room we find the still lifes of Benjamín Palencia, Francisco Bores and Julio González, more avant-garde than Dalí at that time, although the most innovative artist was a woman, Maruja Mallo, one of the few women in Spanish art. His ‘Desnudo surrealista’ and ‘Estampa’ can be seen here, along with works by Ángeles Ortiz and María Blanchard.

The first room, ‘Espacios’, introduces the visitor to the exhibition through landscapes which show this recognizable figuration but which move away from academic realism. Among the pieces that attract attention, a rural Mediterranean decor in which the colors are more pronounced than the shapes, ‘Paisaje de Mont-roig’ (1916), in which we discover a different Joan Miró, and prior to abstraction that defined his recognizable work. This country motif is also present in José María Ucelay and Horacio Ferrer, but already expresses a major shift towards the urban and the industrial, with ‘La fábrica bajo la niebla’ by Daniel Vázquez Díaz and ‘Casa en construcción’ by Ángel López-Obrero, with Gabriel Photo from Casas “Andamios in the Sagrada Familia” (1930).

Unusual and important

This exhibition, sponsored by Fundación La Caixa and Soho Boutique Hotels, is so unusual that it sets the Carmen Thyssen Museum on a level of its own. It is “a contribution to the history of Spanish art which is our interest and our concern”, declared the artistic director, Lourdes Moreno. The exhibition had been planned before the 2020 lockdown, and despite the delay and difficulties caused by the pandemic, it features works from more than 50 different collectors and galleries. These include the Reina Sofía Museum, the Bilbao Fine Arts Museum, the Nacional de Catuña, the IVAM, the Gala Salvador Dali Foundation and the Museum of Malaga.

“We also want to point out that even though many people have said that we can no longer organize exhibitions of this type, we are there, that is exactly what we are doing,” said Alberto Gil.

]]> Incredible Elden Ring Fan Art Shows Malenia’s Mech Version https://fewandfar.net/incredible-elden-ring-fan-art-shows-malenias-mech-version/ Tue, 26 Apr 2022 07:24:00 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/incredible-elden-ring-fan-art-shows-malenias-mech-version/

An incredibly talented Elden Ring fan creates Fan Art that depicts a Mech version of Malenia, one of the most famous bosses.

Since its release nearly two months ago, Ring of Elden emerged as one of the best-selling titles of the year so far. Ring of Elden has the most impressive sales numbers compared to previous FromSoftware titles like dark souls 3 and Sekiro, and also became the developer’s biggest launch on Steam.

It turns out that out of the millions of Ring of Elden gamers, a few are very talented artists. Many pieces of fan art have gone viral on the internet since the game’s release, depicting famous characters from the game. Ring of Elden player has created a fan art of Sir Gideon Ofnir, which shows the popular NPC surrounded by books.

RELATED: Elden Ring Player Teaches Lion Guardian “Tricks” Using a Bow

Following in the footsteps of these art enthusiasts, another Ring of Elden player showed his creative talent with innovative fan art. This fan art features one of the most famous bosses, Malenia, in a rather unorthodox and peculiar outfit. Reddit user Riisiwaanzz imagined Malenia in a futuristic setting rather than the fantasy world of Ring of Elden. The user named her creation “Mechalenia”, combining the words “mech” and “Malenia”. The fan art shows Malenia in metal armor and a face mask, giving her a more robotic look. Meanwhile, the art also shows Malenia wearing her winged helmet and wielding the katana known as the Hand of Malenia.

Even though Malenia is an optional boss in Ring of Elden, she is definitely among the most popular and hardest to beat. Like several other Ring of Elden characters, Malenia also has a tragic history, having been afflicted with Scarlet Rot since birth, causing her to use prosthetic limbs. Despite this great popularity, many Ring of Elden fans don’t know Malenia’s secrets, including her Scarlet Rot affliction and the mysterious circumstances of her birth.

While the majority of the Reddit community praised Riisiwaanzz’s fan art, some compared the art to Gundam. Gundam are giant robots from the Japanese media franchise of the same name, including several TV series, manga, video games, and more. Although the Reddit user did not intentionally create the art similar to Gundamthe gaming community may surprise everyone with such artwork in the future.

Ring of Elden players are notoriously famous for combining Ring of Elden along with other fictional universes in their fan art. Many of them have gone viral to widespread acclaim, including a combination of Malenia and Princess Zelda, a portrayal of Kirby in Ring of Elden armor, and a depiction of Thor and Mohg.

Ring of Elden is available on PC, PS4, PS5, Xbox One and Xbox Series X/S.

MORE: Elden Ring: Tiche Ashes Black Knife Location


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Kenyans have mastered the art of exploiting politicians as campaigns kick into high gear https://fewandfar.net/kenyans-have-mastered-the-art-of-exploiting-politicians-as-campaigns-kick-into-high-gear/ Mon, 25 Apr 2022 12:01:06 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/kenyans-have-mastered-the-art-of-exploiting-politicians-as-campaigns-kick-into-high-gear/

We’ve been hoarse for the past few months trying to outdo ourselves to support our favorite candidates. Our social media banter has gotten meaner by the day as we all insist on declaring why our opponents’ picks aren’t ideal.

Politicians reappear from their lairs like termites after the rain to convince us once again why recycling them should be a better idea. They are determined to confuse their constituents and win another five years. We are mesmerized by their roadshows and the colorful t-shirts they give us to advertise their candidacies everywhere in places they will never reach.

It is also this season when they become religious – they will attend different religious functions dressed in humility and praising the god whom the congregation will worship. They will contribute generously to the coffers of the church and will even agree to look into questions of scholarships to educate some underprivileged children.

It’s not that Kenyans are stupid, even our old folks back home have learned the hard way that you can only rely on what you have in your hands. Over the years, they have realized that a politician’s words are like smoke that quickly dissipates in the air.

Like a new lover, they will promise you paradise only to ghost you for the next five years. With this in mind, we have mastered the art of quietly listening and even applauding the false promises of politicians in the hope that there will be handouts in the end.

Voters have become shy lovers who eat out of both pots – they praise you and dance to your opponent. They know too well that politicians’ milk season only comes once every five years and they take advantage of it all too well. They will form chamas with bright goals and seek politicians to support them. They will assure you of their unwavering support, but as soon as you turn your back on them, they will associate with your opponent.

They will look for ambitious young men and fuel in them the desire to join politics, as soon as they smell money on you they will convince you of your leadership qualities that your teachers and parents did not see. As soon as you declare your candidacy, your telephone will ring and your house will be like a church, open to everyone.

Unsolicited advice will come from all quarters as different church leaders will invite you for a special anointing. The suffix “mhesh” will come before your name and you will walk for months in a bubble harboring even greater ambitions for the next season.

But perhaps the best character development comes from mainstream political parties that allow candidates to run just to give the ticket to their cronies. The novice politician will spend money to oil the wrong hands in the party offices and even more in his garden.

Self-proclaimed political analysts will urge him to dig deeper into his pockets as the rewards to come will be pressed, shaken and left to flow. Once the elections are over and his money is exhausted, he will return home alone, embittered, the label “mheshimiwa” fluttering over him like an oversized coat, to find new ways to fend for himself.

The incumbent would have won another term and the Kenyan democracy that looks after the welfare of the tumbocrats would have served its purpose.

Anyway, please don’t let your mother in the village end up in the squad of women who ride boda bodas singing for politicians just to earn 100 shillings at the end of the daytime.


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From art to technology | Cyprus courier https://fewandfar.net/from-art-to-technology-cyprus-courier/ Sat, 23 Apr 2022 07:22:24 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/from-art-to-technology-cyprus-courier/

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Vincent Trocheck Q&A: On free will, the art of waving and the dormant status of the Carolina Hurricanes https://fewandfar.net/vincent-trocheck-qa-on-free-will-the-art-of-waving-and-the-dormant-status-of-the-carolina-hurricanes/ Thu, 21 Apr 2022 18:00:00 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/vincent-trocheck-qa-on-free-will-the-art-of-waving-and-the-dormant-status-of-the-carolina-hurricanes/

The Carolina Hurricanes have high expectations for themselves heading into the 2021-22 Stanley Cup Playoffs. A major force behind their confidence is Vincent Trocheck, their fiery second-line center.

Trocheck is a big part of the Canes’ present but, as a waiting UFA, his role in their future is cloudy.

How does he feel about potentially going to market for the first time in his career? Are the rods asleep this season? Is agitation an art form?

He caught up Daily face-to-face this week to discuss these topics and more.

DAILY CONFRONTATION: When we last spoke, you reflected on coming back too soon from a fractured fibula a few seasons ago and how last season you finally felt like yourself. How do you feel physically today, more than three years after the injury?

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VINCENT TROCHECK: I feel good. I feel like I’m 100%. I was able to stay healthy, thankfully, this year, and everything is fine.

DFO: You surpassed your career hit record this season.

TROCHECK: I did not know.

DFO: You have 181 hits in 77 games. Your previous career high was 164 in 82 games. Was it a conscious goal to play more of a physical game this year? But you’ve always been quite physical.

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TROCHECK: It’s been my style of play throughout my career. I like to play physical. It involves me more in the game. It’s the way we play hockey, the style of hockey, it’s a bit more aggressive, so maybe it has something to do with that.

DFO: Is this something that was prepared by coach Rod Brind’Amour?

TROCHECK: It’s just the style of play we have. Obviously, Roddy created this style. It’s aggressive. It’s just the way our style compels you to play.

DFO: You and Brad Marchand made headlines earlier this season with your tweets about each other that spread across social media. Is it one of your goals to try to put yourself in the shoes of the teams? The fact that you’re throwing punches at each other, is that a sign that it’s working? If guys shoot you on Instagram, does that mean you’re successful?

TROCHECK: I don’t think far from the ice that I really want to put under guys’ skin. On the ice, yes, there are games where I try to get under guys’ skin, to get inside someone’s head. If I push them to take a penalty or take them away from their game a little, it’s positive. I’m not trying to make guys hate me off the ice, but that’s part of my style on the ice as well.

DFO: Is there an art to agitating opponents?

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TROCHECK: I do not think so. I think it’s just my personality (laughs).

DFO: Some agitators have taken it to the next level. Like Steve Ott, for example, used to learn other languages ​​so he could tweet his opponents in their own language. Do you have stuff like that?

TROCHECK: I respect that. I tried to learn different languages. I could not. I tried to learn a little French when I was in Florida. I was trying to learn it so I could talk to Jonathan Huberdeau. But never to tweet anyone.

DFO: This year you played a lot with Andrei Svechnikov as a left winger after it was usually Nino Niederreiter last season. How is it to play with Svechnikov? How has this changed the way you play?

TROCHECK: He was great. Obviously, he is extremely talented. He has a ton of talent. But at the same time, he works extremely hard. He has a physical style of play like me too, so we have chemistry in that sense. It was fun to play with. I appreciate. He is extremely dynamic, so he makes things a little easier for me sometimes. Having him on the forecheck being physical is good. It fits our style.

DFO: If you look at the leaderboard right now. You’ve been near the top of the subway so often lately, year after year, that I wonder if people take that for granted. Have you ever felt like the league or people in general are sleeping on the Hurricanes as contenders?

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TROCHECK: I think lately it seems that way. But we don’t focus on the outside noise, on the media and how they think we play. Every year the media has opinions and predictions about what is to come. Anyone can beat anyone. So all of that doesn’t matter once you get into the playoffs.

DFO: Do you have a goal in mind as to what a “successful” year looks like for the Hurricanes? Is it to win two rounds? Win three? Win the cup? What is the target?

TROCHECK: Well, the target is the Stanley Cup. I don’t think anyone sees a second- or third-round exit as a positive. There are no moral wins once you get to the playoffs. You are here to win a Stanley Cup. That’s why everyone plays in the NHL. This is what we dream of growing up.

DFO: You’re from Pittsburgh and grew up a Penguins fan. Have you thought about the possibility of meeting them in the playoffs this year in this Metro bracket? Would it be very special to play against the Penguins?

TROCHECK: I don’t think it would be any different playing against someone else. It’s just different confrontations. For me, just being from Pittsburgh doesn’t make much difference.

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DFO: So there’s no embarrassment or awareness that you’re playing against your childhood team?

TROCHECK: It would be cool to have lots of family there during the road playoffs. But other than that, I’ve played against them probably 20 times in my career at this point, maybe more, so I’ve moved past that original feeling of playing against my hometown team.

DFO: You’re gearing up to become an unrestricted free agent for the first time in your career this summer. Is it scary? Exciting? Have you ever thought a lot?

TROCHECK: No, I haven’t given it much thought. It’s hard to contemplate that when you still have the season at hand and you’re part of a fighting team that has a chance to win the Stanley Cup. You focus all your attention on it.

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DFO: Can that be a motivator, though? Given that the results of this season can obviously affect what happens in the future?

TROCHECK: Yeah, it can be, but at the same time, there’s never been a season where, like, I don’t mind if I don’t score or do this or that. Every year you try to score and contribute as much as you can. Motivationally, that’s always the goal. Maybe a little more pressure (as a UFA), but other than that you just try to get by and play hockey.

DFO: You were quoted this season saying you hope to be back in Carolina. Are you ready to double that? Is it still where you are right now, or is it too early to tell?

TROCHECK: That’s always the goal, to be there. I love being a Hurricane and having a chance to win every year is what you want to be. So I hope we can figure something out.

DFO: As we move away from the peak of COVID-19 lockdowns and play in bubbles and such: have you been able to explore the Raleigh area more this season and get to know the community better?

TROCHECK: Yeah. After COVID, you were able to do more things, go out a bit more for dinner and see the city. All the guys have been able to get out of the house more, which is good.

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DFO: You have two children. How old?

TROCHECK: Three and 19 months.

DFO: What is the hardest thing about fatherhood for you so far?

TROCHECK: I would say that the most difficult thing is to make them listen (laughs). But on a deeper level, you want them to be a certain way, and you want them to be good people, and that’s hard. I know with my eldest it’s hard to make him understand that he has a younger sister and he’s supposed to protect her and do the right thing, be a good role model, not push her around and make sure he’s fair with her. He’s so young to understand all this. This is the most difficult thing for him at three years old.

DFO: What is your favorite thing about being a dad?

TROCHECK: Everything about it was fun for me. My son is obsessed with hockey, obsessed with the Hurricanes, and it’s non-stop for him every day. As soon as he wakes up at bedtime, he wants to play hockey all day. Likes to come to games, likes to watch games, talk about hockey. He knows all the NHL mascots. Seeing him and how much he loves the game is pretty cool to me. And the fact that he could watch me while I’m still playing and winning on a good team was a lot of fun for me.

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DFO: When you can see the sport through your child as a fan, the eyes of a fan, does that awaken another part of you where you can appreciate the game in that way? The example being the mascots. Can you put yourself in your son’s shoes and enjoy hockey at this level?

TROCHECK: It definitely puts things into perspective a bit more. Seeing him at such a young age and how much he loves the game brings back memories of being a kid, when all that really mattered was playing and having fun.

______

Recently by Matt Larkin

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How to raise a reader https://fewandfar.net/how-to-raise-a-reader/ Tue, 19 Apr 2022 18:59:31 +0000 https://fewandfar.net/how-to-raise-a-reader/

A recent survey by the National Education Progress Assessment revealed that reading for pleasure among children is at an all-time low.

The decline is, unsurprisingly here, likely attributed to increased screen usage.

It is likely that these children who do not read will become adults who do not read.

I don’t want my kids to be those kids who don’t read for fun and then become adults who don’t read for fun either.

I want them to be readers.

Reading not only improves a child’s academic performance and cognitive development, but more importantly, at least to me, reading is simply one of life’s most rewarding and uplifting activities. Reading has had a huge impact on my own life. I had my world expanded by reading. I had fun for hours while reading. I made friends through reading. I even made a career out of reading.

I want my children to experience that same vital power of reading.

It looks like they’re – fingers crossed – about to become lifelong readers. Gus and Scout have their noses in a book before falling asleep at night. When we take long car trips, they intentionally mix shorter sessions of screen time with longer periods of reading. One of my favorite sounds is Gus laughing out loud at something he’s reading in a book.

If you’re looking for tips on how to raise a reader, here’s what has seemed to work for us so far to boost our kids’ reading habit:

Keep a well-stocked personal library. When I read the biographies of prominent men who were voracious readers (which, oddly enough, almost all of them were – there is certainly a correlation between reading and success), many of them talk about growing up in homes full of books.

It’s not just that keeping a library at home gives your child access to lots of books (while they could hypothetically pull a book off our shelves, my kids haven’t — they have their own taste in literature), is that the library acts as a powerful signal that reading is important to you as parents, and is important in your family culture. And it’s a reminder that tons and tons of knowledge exists in the world – more than they could imagine as they navigate the familiar and worn paths carved by their digital browsing habits – and it’s all there to be discovered. and taken!

While you can build a digital library of books, that’s one of the many reasons concrete, hard-copy bound copies are truly superior. Your Kindle app is never going to continually pique your children’s curiosity.

Of course, a home library won’t have much of an effect if its books are just decorative and your kids never see you opening them. So:

Be a reader yourself. Your children are always watching you. They are more likely to do what you do than what you say. So lead them by example and be a reader yourself. Let your kids catch you reading.

I am grateful to my parents for many things, but one thing I am especially grateful for is their example of being readers. Growing up, I always saw both my parents with their noses in books. They made reading feel like a normal part of life – just something you do. They never taught my siblings and me to read, but we all followed their example and read ourselves.

Read aloud to them when they’re little (and beyond). Just because your kids are too young to read on their own doesn’t mean you can’t start instilling the habit of reading in them. Read aloud to your children when they are young. This will establish a pattern for them that reading is just a normal part of the routine of life. Like brushing your teeth.

Even when your children are old enough to read on their own, continue to read aloud to them. It’s a great way to spend time with your kids and reinforces that reading is just something you do in your family. We read aloud to our children since they were small. We now read chapters to them before they go to bed. It’s been a chance for Kate and I to expose our kids to books we enjoyed as kids (and discover new books we missed as we grew up).

Let your children read whatever they want. Some well-meaning parents have this idea that if their children are going to be readers, then they will only read the Great Books or only the classics of children’s literature. So they enroll their children in a reading program and force their children to browse through books that don’t interest them.

It’s a great way to turn your kids into non-readers. If you go this route, you turn reading into something like eating your lima beans or taking medicine. Not something you want to do, but something you should To do. yuck!

Instead, let your kids read whatever they want. Well no whatever They want. I don’t recommend letting a nine-year-old read Devil in blue dress (although I recommend reading this and other hard-boiled crime novels as an adult). But let them read whatever they want. . . it’s age appropriate. You want them to learn enjoy reading. As literature professor Alan Jacobs says, let your children read according to Caprice.

This hands-off approach means your kids can read unscholarly books for a while. Gus has been through, and Scout is still in the middle of the little kids graphic novel phase. Think Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Captain Underpants, Fat Nate, etc. Are these books that I would personally choose for my children? No. But they liked to read these books, so we let them read them. Gus has finally emerged in plain text chapter books, and Scout is getting there too.

Your children have the rest of their lives to read the Great Books. Your main goal as a parent is to make reading something your children enjoy doing so that when they are old enough to read the Iliad, they actually go want to to read it.

Get them a library card. Most libraries allow your children to get a library card when they are quite young. Give one to your child and take it to the library frequently. Free books! The idea here again is to make the book an integral part of life.

Buy your children’s books with abandon. While we used to take our children to the library a lot when they were little, as they grew up and developed the ability to read on their own, we take them to the bookstore more often and let them choose books which we then buy for them. .

Not because we are spendthrifts, but because there are several reasons why I think buying books for your children is a good idea.

There seems to be something about buying a book for your kids that makes them more motivated to read it. I guess it’s the dopamine that comes with buying stuff. I’ve noticed that my kids are more likely to immerse themselves in a book we bought them than a book they check out at the library.

Buying books also helps your children create their own library at home. Our children often like to read the same book twice (or more).

Also, the fact that we buy books for our kids, while having them use their own pocket money to buy things like toys and video games, makes books feel less like a special treat, and more like other basic necessities that we fund such as clothing. and the food.

In my opinion, books are a real godsend, especially children’s books. A new children’s paperback book is only $10 (or less!) and will provide your children with hours of entertainment, all kinds of cognitive, emotional and academic benefits, and another boost on the path to becoming lifetime readers.

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